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By isolating assets with different risk levels, Euler atbuy usdt lebanontempts to increase the supported asset classes on the one hand, and on the other hand to ensure that high-risk assets do not affect the security of mainstream assets.Adopt dynamic interest rate model: improve the sensitivity and accuracy of interest rate pricing

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This model is similar to the "dynamic interest rate model" designed by Delphi Digital for the Mars Protocol, the lending agreement of the Terra ecology. On the one hand, it improves the sensitivity and accuracy of interest rate pricing, and at the same time, it can obtain higher interest income for depositors and the agreement itself.To put it simply, the interest rate model is adjusted on the basis of mainstream lending agreements such as Aave. By adjusting the fund utilization formula, the interest rate can be more sensitively adapted to the real capital supply and demand situation of the market in real time, instead of the existing mainstream interest rate. The linear method of the model increases the interest rate. This can prevent the occurrence of a loan agreement that can only watch users use low-cost borrowing on their own platform and then deposit to other platforms to obtain high mining revenues for arbitrage. This will cause borrowers to have no incentive to provide loans, and lenders are unwilling The situation of repayment as soon as possible eventually led to the exhaustion of the liquidity of the loan agreement. The dynamic interest rate model is dedicated to solving such problems.For details of the Euler interest rate dynamic model, please refer to "Introducing Euler" in the reference material.A large number of improvements in the liquidation mechanism: optimization of the liquidation threshold, anti-MEV, internal multi-collateral pool1. Combine mortgage rate and borrowing rate to customize the threshold of asset liquidation

Like mainstream lending agreements, Euler requires users to ensure over-collateralization, that is, the value of assets is greater than the value of liabilities. When the value of liabilities exceeds a certain ratio of the collateral, it will allow the liquidator to liquidate the mortgagor's assets and repay the debt. But in the calculation of debt value, Euler also introduced the concept of borrowing factor. The liquidation threshold of each borrower is tailored to the specific risk profile associated with the assets they borrow and use as collateral. In other words, when the value of the borrower's risk-adjusted liabilities exceeds the value of the collateral, it may be liquidated. Specifically, compared to the original lending mechanism, Euler's mechanism also adds a multi-dimensional risk assessment of liabilities, which further improves the safety margin of liquidation.At present, the main liquidation incentive model adopted by mainstream lending agreements such as Compound is: the liquidator can purchase the mortgagor's assets with a fixed percentage discount. Under this mechanism, all liquidators face the same liquidation opportunity, and their potential profit percentages are the same, so they can only compete for liquidation opportunities by increasing Gas, where the high MEV value (Gas cost) becomes the liquidator’s The additional cost also increases the risk of the system. On the other hand, for mortgagors, the fixed asset discount auction ratio also allows them to lose the opportunity to lose a lower liquidation penalty.At this stage, Axie Infinity already has more than 1.5 million daily active players, mainly in the Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, Venezuela, India and Vietnam. For thousands of users, playing Axie Infinity has become their source of livelihood, and sometimes the revenue provided by this game far exceeds their income from working locally. Although most players are not native users in the crypto industry, through viral word-of-mouth marketing, many people have learned about the Axie Infinity game. The explosive growth, global influence, and extensive revenue generation achieved by the Axie Infinity game is indeed impressive. The reason for this achievement is mainly because they created a new game model of "play and earn". In terms of gameplay, Axie Infinity is similar to Pokémon. Players need to breed and breed Axies, a cartoon character that looks like a salamander, and then participate in the battle. The difference is that instead of winning points, the winner gets the game’s native token-Smooth Love Potion (SLP). This token can be immediately transferred to another crypto asset or used as collateral, or Cashed as legal tender. Axies and the digital land of games can be bought and sold between individuals as NFTs, and they even launched a governance token (AXS) that allows holders to determine the future of the game.

Another project is Yield Guild Games (YFF), which is a "guild" aimed at the new "play while earning" economy. This union is managed by a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) for those who want to professionally play Axie Infinity and Other people who "play and earn" games provide "scholarship" incentives to share part of their income. Therefore, this decentralized autonomous organization holds NFTs from various Metaverse games, making its governance token YGG an index of game earning economy. Although the project is still in its infancy, there are already more than 4,500 "scholars" with weekly transactions exceeding US$1 million.In recent months, some other "play while earning" mode games have become more and more popular, such as CryptoBlades, Zed Run, Cometh, REVV, etc. In fact, in the "play while earning" mode games have obtained orders. After the jaw-dropping success, this game revolution is very meaningful for big-name game developers. This trend cannot be ignored. In the future, we may see some mature game industry participants begin to incorporate these ideas into their games, and Bring this game mode to a wider audience.There are three major shackles in the traditional game industryGaming is an industry that covers the world: There are currently more than 2.7 billion gamers in the world, mainly in Asia, Europe and Latin America. In addition, games are firmly integrated into the daily lives of many people: 60% of Americans play video games in some form every day, and video game streaming has 1.2 billion viewers every year. For example, Fortnite is a popular product of Epic Games. Last year, there were more than 350 million live players per month and generated 5.1 billion U.S. dollars in revenue, which shows that even a single game can achieve great success. Some analysts predict that the value of the gaming industry will exceed US$300 billion in the next few years.

However, despite the promising development trajectory of the game field, there are still three major shackles:Shackle one, traditional game players don't really "own" anything. Players mainly buy clothing, weapons, props, etc. on in-game items, but even so, last year's consumption in this area still exceeded US$50 billion. However, in addition to improving player performance and game fun, these game items cannot be used for any other purpose, nor can they be sold, lent or mortgaged for any game items purchased by themselves. These purchase transactions are not real investments.

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Shackle two, the interoperability between traditional games is very limited. To a large extent, many games on the current market are still walled gardens: they are independent of different "game worlds" and have their own items and experiences. Of course, this problem is not surprising! Game developers want to gain complete independent control over their own creative efforts, but what if game developers can collaborate with each other in more complex ways?Shackle three, traditional games lack business model options. At this stage, more than 80% of total digital game revenue comes from free games (or "freemium games"). In some successful paid games, most of them only get income through the purchase of skins, which will also limit the design space of some developers. Form follows function. As more game developers launch new business models (such as secondary NFT sales commissions), new game forms will also appear.Why the "Playing and Earning" game can get a big explosionIn fact, there are five major trends that have driven the explosion of "play while earning" games:

Trend 1: The blockchain network continues to expand. Remember the network congestion caused by the "crypto cat" CryptoKitties game in 2017? But now, with the emergence of the second-tier Ethereum expansion protocol, a new high-throughput blockchain, and other scalability solutions, there has been a solid foundation for the vigorous development of blockchain native games;Trend 2: NFT becomes mainstream. Many innovations, including the ERC-721 standard, have spawned the recent upsurge in NFT applications. Game companies now have the tools to NFT games, and more importantly, the public can better understand why rare game assets are valuable.Trend 3: DeFi tools and architectures are increasing. Many basic decentralized financial industry tools (for example, AMM automatic market makers) have been tested in actual combat and have been widely implemented. Game developers can combine these tools to realize game financialization and promote purchase, lending, mortgage and other basic financial activities Now they can all enter the game field smoothly.Trend 4: Web2 interoperability. Many traditional large-scale technology giants have also begun to join the decentralized ecosystem, and have also opened up a new distribution mechanism for encryption-driven games. For example, Apple’s recent changes to the App Store can make it easier for iOS users to directly access NFT-based “sides”. Play and earn” game.

Trend 5: Metaverse. "Meta universe" has become a new frontier of digital experience, and the rapid rise of this emerging concept has even aroused Facebook's interest.Summarize

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This summer, Axie Infinity achieved explosive growth, and many people were also very excited about Yield Guild, which in turn promoted the flourishing of "play while earning" games. After this craze, traditional game giants and cryptocurrency thought leaders have also begun to pay attention to "play while earning" games-under this strong tailwind, what other projects will be built in the future is very worthy of attention. For investors exploring the field of "playing and earning" games, now is of course a very "fun" moment, but from a broader perspective, it also marks the occurrence of our views on labor, leisure and value Changes-therefore, the "play and earn" game is definitely an important trend we must pay attention to.If you say which one is the most brilliant chain in the second half of this year, there is no doubt that solana is worthy of its name. SOL was founded by former Qualcomm, Intel and Dropbox engineers at the end of 2017. Solana is high-performance, fast, generous and rich in the project, and the team has SBF. Blessing, these distinctive features have enabled solana's defi to be launched one after another since May, and reached a blowout level. This is mainly due to the continuous development of the market and ecology of solana, and three consecutive hackathons were held within a year. Most of the projects have been effectively incubated. Obviously, Solana's reputation has overtaken polkadot and become a new public chain giant.

The specific situation is actually very simple. The ecological project parrot conducts IDO. According to official regulations, users can receive tokens when IDO is completed, and then they can trade at the same time. On the one hand, the enthusiasm for participation is high and the user base is large. Most people wanted to sell at a high price for the first time, which caused congestion on the chain and data overflow and collapse of most nodes. In the end, the network was paralyzed for more than ten hours. It can be said that similar incidents are almost hard to come across.On the one hand, the enthusiasm of users is indeed too high. On the other hand, the high-performance public chain also faces the risk of being questioned. Fortunately, after the official team released the new version of the program, the solana network returned to normal and everyone can continue to play.However, this incident has given many people a thought as to what kind of public chain we need in the future.On the one hand, POW-type mining public chains such as Bitcoin face the problem of low TPS and cannot carry the high-demand transactions of the existing DEFI. On the other hand, chains such as Solana, fantom, and polygon are facing a tendency to become more centralized. When there is a peak, the network becomes unstable, and even this kind of network is paralyzed. However, it seems that there is still no good solution to get the advantages of both at the same time.Why is the high TPS public chain unstable?Many people may have heard of the "Impossible Triangle" in the currency circle, that is, high performance, security and decentralization are not available at the same time. Security is one of the main directions at present, so high performance and decentralization It becomes the opposite, and solana mainly improves the transmission rate, that is, performance, so there are naturally certain shortcomings in decentralization.

However, this situation does not hurt a lot in the bull market. The rise of DEFI in the bull market is still based on practicality. Solana is obviously more practical, so this does not prevent capital from paying attention to it.But for other high-performance public chains, they may all face similar problems. When the user group's sentiment is high, the transfer on the chain reaches the upper limit of the load, and there is no certain protection measure, then the network may collapse, and Solana has funds. Yes, even if it collapses, the currency price is still relatively stable, and it has not fallen much. On the contrary, it shows that the ecological development is successful and the user participation is high. Compared with other public chains, if it collapses, can you still have such good luck? Probably not.

The POW chain still maintains good network security and decentralizationFor the early POW chains, their decentralization is still relatively high, such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum. The degree of decentralization of the network mainly depends on the decentralization of the true owners of computing power. Many people mistakenly believe that the current Bitcoin mining pools account for a large percentage of the computing power of the mining pool. If the mining pool is attacked, it is equivalent to the block producer being attacked, which will affect the network security. To a certain extent, this view is still partially flawed.

The computing power we are talking about is mainly based on the actual autonomous distribution rights of users, rather than the operating status of the block node. For example, most mining pools are actually running in professional computer rooms. The computing power of mining pools is high. To a certain extent, it will lead to centralization, but the mining power of an individual can change at any time. That is to say, the mining rights of the mining pool are the result of the choice made by the miners, and this choice can be changed instantly. For example, cutting off computing power is also a matter of minutes. Non-POW nodes have to undergo a series of processes such as reselection and voting, which also delays a certain amount of time. Therefore, POW is relatively advantageous.For example, in the POW chain, when mining pool A is attacked or there is a problem with the node, in theory, the block generation speed on the chain will be greatly reduced at this time. A block in the previous 10 minutes may now take 15 minutes on average, unless it is time to adjust the difficulty. , But for miners, they can cut their own computing power to other mining pools, which completes the redistribution process of computing power. The mining pool's computing power is reshuffled without affecting the efficiency of the overall network, and blocks are generated. The time will soon return to the previous 10 minutes, which completes the adaptive adjustment of the network.

Therefore, the impact of attacking a certain mining pool node of Bitcoin and Ethereum on the network is relatively small, so why does the POW network not improve the efficiency of the chain?In fact, this is mainly because the POW chain requires a large number of calculations to determine the hash value, which increases the difficulty of tampering and forks to a certain extent, thereby ensuring security, although the current block generation speed of some POW chains is also Increase, but we can clearly compare the problem that may exist when the speed increases, that is, the problem of easy bifurcation.Bitcoin is a block in 10 minutes, and it is not easy to forkEthereum has a block in about 13 seconds, and sometimes an uncle block is needed to ensure that the transaction does not fork

A public chain with a higher block generation rate has a block every two seconds. Except for the uncle block, there is a certain rejection rate when mining to ensure that there is no fork.The faster the chain, the higher the possibility of forking. Therefore, in order to ensure a complete chain, it can only bring a higher rejection rate or try to ensure the computing power while increasing the ability to perform multitasking at the same time. The fork will soon be strangled into the cradle.

For non-POW public chains, this does not happen, because they no longer need to rely on competition to ensure their own block qualifications, some are in turn, and some are random, so that they wait until the node has a block. In the case of block qualification, only a small amount of computing power is required to successfully generate eligible blocks. Because of this, the non-POW public chain itself can have high block generation efficiency, and most of the resources will be used above the block generation speed.The future Ethereum 2.0 adopts the method of sharding. In fact, it decentralizes the rights of nodes and realizes another mode of decentralization as a whole. However, from the perspective of each shard chain, it is still It is relatively close to centralization, so just like others' laughter, most public chains run in centralized computer rooms. As long as the computer room is powered off, the public chain can die for a large amount of time. It is biased, but it can show that there is still a long way to go in the exploration of public chains.

Few institutional investors take risks on high-growth stocks because of price volatility and the innovative nature of the business. However, Cathie Wood, the head of ARK Investment Management, has become an investor. Wall Street investors invest in technology. Cathie Wood manages more than $53 billion in assets in her hedge fund. The top 10 investments account for 35 of the portfolio. %. And in 2014 founded ARK Investment Management Company. Her fund has now become the US Environmental Fund.Cathie Wood's holdings are concentrated in high-growth areas such as technology and healthcare. This is also one of the reasons why Cathie Wood has become a supporter of retail investors. Retail investors are market forces that have gradually increased in recent months. They also like the investment style similar to Mu sister. In 2020, Mu Jie's ARK Innovation ETF has brought investors more than 152% returns. Although the recent gains of ARK have slowed down, Ms. Mu is still sticking to her investment model.

At the end of the second quarter of 2021, some of the top holdings in ARK Investment Management’s portfolio were Tesla Inc. (Tesla, Inc.), Twitter, Inc. (NYSE: TWTR), Square, Inc. (NYSE: SQ) ), Roku, Inc. (NASDAQ: ROKU), Shopify Inc. (NYSE: SHOP), etc. Although Tesla is still the fund’s largest holding, the total holdings are worth more than $4 billion. According to updated data from Ark Investment Management LLC, the fund sold nearly 89,000 Tesla shares (worth US$66 million) and added more than 236,000 shares of Robinhood (worth US$10 million). So far this month, they have increased their holdings of approximately 390,000 Robinhood shares. At the same time, it sold Tesla stock worth $200 million.In the past five months, ARK's funds have sold more than 1 million shares of Tesla stock. But Tesla is still one of its heavyweights.The following are the stocks that Ms. Mu has been selling based on ARK's public records.1. SBI Holdings, Inc.

SBI Holdings, Inc. has a market value of more than 6 billion U.S. dollars, and its annual revenue in the previous fiscal year was close to 5 billion U.S. dollars. The company was founded in 1999 and has more than 9,000 employees worldwide. SBI Holdings, Inc. (OTC: SBHGF) has a seven-year history of dividend growth. The 52-week price range of the stock is between $22 and $37. The company's revenue has grown at a compound annual growth rate of more than 16%.SBI Group is also closely related to the crypto market, especially with Ripple. SBI has always been one of the strongest supporters of XRP in the Japanese market.

Unlike Tesla, Twitter, Inc., Square, Inc., Roku, Inc. and Shopify Inc., SBI Holdings, Inc. (OTC: SBHGF) is one of the stocks that Cathie Wood has been selling.2. InterCure Ltd.

InterCure Ltd. is for sale by Cathie Wood. The company is headquartered in Israel and manufactures and sells hemp products. InterCure Ltd. (NASDAQ: INCR) has a market capitalization of more than US$318 million and last year's revenue exceeded US$20 million. (Nasdaq: INCR) has a market value of more than 318 million U.S. dollars and last year's revenue exceeded 20 million U.S. dollars. It was established in 1994. The stock's trading volume was 1,531,006, and the 52-week price range was between $3 and $40.In the second quarter earnings report released on September 3, InterCure Ltd. (NASDAQ: INCR) announced the earnings for the second quarter. (NASDAQ: INCR) reported revenue of NT$45 million, an increase of more than 300% compared to the same period last year.

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster